About Ecuador

About Ecuador

One country four worlds, Ecuador can be described like this. The gigantic amazonean area, the highlands with its numerous volcanoes, the sunny coasts and not to forget the Galapagos islands, one of the great highlights of south America or in the whole world. All this in a small country like the former western Germany. Ecuador is the clearly smallest of the Andean countries, but a special one. Because of lying directly on the equator line the climate is nearly stable for the whole year. Sun in the morning, later clouds and rain in the afternoon. In the highland cold nights, in the coast and amazon hot and sweaty all the time. Many people say Quito the capital has all the 4 seasons in one day. Ecuador is always wet and has no dry season like Peru or Bolivia. But the advantage of this is, that the country is extremly green, with an incredible diversity of plants. Not only in the dschungle, also the mountain regions are covered with majestic rain forests below the typical paramos.


The capital is just the second biggest city in the country, Guayaquil the biggest one has more than 3 Million inhabitants, Quito just about 2 Million. Both cities are still rising and together they have about 40% of the 14 Million Ecuadorians. Other big cities are Ibarra, Otavola, Tulcan, Riobamba, Ampato, Cuenca and Loja in the highlands, Lago Agrio, Puyo and Tena in the amazon and Machala, Esmeraldas und Manta at the coast.


There are a few famous beach destinations like Atacames or Montanita but also a lot of robbery. The most interesting bath is Baños on the way down from Ampato to Puyo. Below the activ Tungurahua there are natural hot springs and a fantastic landscape.


In general Ecuador is famous for its volcanoes, e few of them belong to the most actives in the world. Tungurahua, Rucu Pichincha and Sangay are in permanent observation, but also Sumaco, Cotopaxi and some others still smoke. The Cotopaxi is the perfect volcano with about 1000 meters Ice at the top. Higher is just the Chimborazo with 6278 Meters the only 6000 in Ecuador. Alexander Von Humbold made the first attempt, but without ice equipment. But there are lots of other spectacular destinations like the Illinizas, Antizana, Cayambe, Cotocachi, Chiles, Imbabura, Fuya Fuya, Altar and so on.


Ecuador offers lots of hikes, you can go down from the highland to the dschungle or surround Cotopaxi, Sangay or Altar. Rafting, Mountain Biking  and Paragliding are other options of adventure sports to do here. Beneath the hot springs there are also Crater Lagoons like Cuicocha or Quillatoa and for sure Ecuador has its Inca ruins, too. In the southern part between Cuenca and Riobamba located in the village Tambo we find Incaopirca, an ancient village with a lot to see. Like its famous pendant in Peru you can reach these ruins by hike as well, but also you can go by car.














Chile is called the country with the nuts geography, because there is nearly everything in one large but thin country. 4300 km coast line are the distance from the north to the south. Also the climatic differences are enormous, the hot desserts in the north like San Pedro de Atacama and the cold, icy south in Patagonia are two different worlds. The middle is quite europelike, Blue lakes, still large forests and scenic volcanoes make you believe to be in the alps. The climate also has 4 seasons from spring to winter, but in a different circuit. So in winter time you can find numerous skiing areas like Farellones, Villarica or La Parva.

Chile is a real modern and clean country so you can travel save and comfortable. The cities seems to be in Spain or Italy, even Santiago has a modern Train system and exocentric buildings. Here are 5,3 Millions of the about 15 Millions Chileans concentrated and the city is still rising. About 100.000 people move to the metropolis every year. But Santiago is the only million city in Chile, Vallenar and Viña de Mar just have less than half a million, also Conception or the biggest city in the north Antofagasta. The most northern cities are Arica and Iquique, former Peru and still tax free areas. Calama and the famous San Pedro de Atacama are other highlights of the north. With still hot climate follows the area around Copiapo and La Serena. Here you find the eternal spring in the Valle de Elqui  and one of the coldest mountains in south America, the highest Point of Chile, Ojos de Salado 6893m.

In the lake district Poerto Montt, Osorno, Pucon, Villarica and Puerto Varas are the most famous cities. Further south just Punta Arenas and Puerto Natales. Here is the touristic backround of the country, the Torres del Paine National Park and the Patagonien andes. Virgen Forests, heavy glaciered mountains, thin rock needles and strong winds.

Mountains are good overflow, Chile has a few famous regions for andinists, down here just some of them:

  •  Nevado Ojos del Salado, 6.880 m, III. Region (Región de Atacama)
  • Cerro Tupungato, 6.800 m, Hauptstadt-Region (Región Metropolitana)
  • Volcán Llullaillaco, 6.739 m, II. Region (Región de Antofagasta)
  • Volcán Parinacota, 6.342 m, I. Region (Región de Tarapacá)
  • Volcán Licancábur, 5916 m, II. Region (Región de Antofagasta)
  • Descabezado Grande, 3.830 m, VII. Region (Región del Maule)
  • Torres del Paine, 2.800 m, XII. Region (Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena)
  • Volcán Villarrica, 2.840 m, VIII. Region (Región de la Araucanía)
  • Volcán Osorno, 2.652 m, X. Region (Región de los Lagos)
  • Volcán Cerro Hudson, 1.905 m, XI. Region (Región de Aisén)








Peru is the touristy most frequented south American country with various highlights. The Cusco Area with Machu Pichu, Ollantaytambo, Pisaq and Saqsayhuaman and other famous inca ruins. There are various Inca Trails like Choquequirao, Salcantay, Lares or the Inca Trail by itself. Also the Ausangate Circuit is worth a visit. Then for sure the mystic Titicaca lake. From Puno tourists can visit the numerous islands like the flooting Urus, Amantani or Taquile. Arequipa is the white City in the south, surrounded by gigantic volcanoes like Misti, Chachani, Ampato or Coropuna. Near by there are two of the deepest canyons in the world, Cotahuasi and the for its Condor famous Colca.

Nascar Lines, the Islas ballestas. Or the oasis Huacachina are other highlights of the southern part.

In the north there are interesting archaeological sides, too, like Chan Chan, Cajamarca or Sipan. The most famous area north of Lima is Huaraz with the glaciered Mountain Ranges Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Huayhuash. Here we can find the highest mountain of the country the 6768m high Huascaran and other spectacular giants like Alpamayo, Yerupaja, Jirishanca, Nevado Pisco, Tocllaraju, Artesonraju and a lot more. Also there are famous treks like the Huayhuash circuit, Santa Cruz Trek or around the Alpamayo.

Not really touristic is the back country with Huancayo, the nice colonial city Ayacucho and Abancay.

In the dschungel areas are the most famous destination the Manu National Park, Pucallpa and Iquitos.

Most of the Peruvian live near by the coast, just about 11 Millions in Lima, more than half a Million in Chimbote, Trujillo and Chiclyao. The second biggest City is Arequipa with around 800.000 to 900.000 inhabitants. The most southern city is Tacna near the chilenian border.

Peru itself has about 28 Million inhabitants and this number is still rising. The country has every kind of nature and lots of prehistoric signs. A long coast line with famous beaches like Mancora or Mollendo, famous mountains, alpin stile like in The Cordillera Blanca and perfect volcanoes like the active Misti or Sabancaya. But the biggest part of the country are the Amazonian areas, nearly half of it. There are virgen areas still to explore and there are just very few people living in the amazon.

This diversity is no really surprise, Peru has 3 times the space of Germany. It is a country with a lot of movement, a lot of things are better up, also the situation for the people.






Argentinien Laendertexte


Mit einer Flaeche von 2,8 Millionen Quadratkilometern ist Argentinien flaechenmaessig der zweitgroesste Staat suedamerikas und immerhin der achtgroesste der Welt. Mit 39,4 Millionen Einwohnern rangiert Argentinien hinter Brasilien und Columbien bevoelkerungsmaessig auf Platz 3 in Suedamerika bei einer Bevoelkerungsdichte von 14 Einwohnern/Quadratkilometer.

Die Stadt Buenos Aires einschliesslich der gleichnamigen Provinz kommt aber alleine schon auf gut 16 Millionen Einwohner, die Provinzen Cordoba und Santa Fe jeweils auf 3 Millionen. Zwischen 11 bis 15 Millionen Einwohner  verteilen sich alleine auf die Hauptstadt Buenos Aires, sodass die Bevoelkerungsverteilung sehr ungleichmaessig ist. Die naechstgroessere Stadt nach Buenos Aires ist Cordoba mit 3,2 Millionen Einwohnern. Weitere wichtige Staedte sind Santa Fe, Rosario, das fruehlingshafte Mendoza, Neuquen, Salta und La Rioja ganz im Norden, Bahia Blanca und die suedlichste Stadt der Welt, Ushuaia.

Die Nachbarlaender Argentiniens sind Bolivien, Brasilien, Chile, Uruguay und Paraguay, zusaetzlich grenzt das Land an den Atlantischen Ozean. Die Nord-Sued-Ausdehnung liegt bei beachtlichen 3.694 km, waehrend die Ost-West-Ausdehnung „nur“1.423 km betraegt.

Praktisch das komplette westliche Grenzgebiet wird von der Andenkette eingenommen, die auf ca. 5.300 km Argentinien vom ungeliebten Nachbarn Chile trennt.

Den zentralen Norden dominiert der Gran Chaco, eine heisse Trockensavanne, an die sich oestlich das Huegelland der Provinz Misiones anschliesst. Hier befinden sich auch die beruehmten Wasserfaelle von Iguazu im Grenzgebiet mit Brasilien und Paraguay.

Weiter suedlich, zwischen den beiden Riesenfluessen Rio Uruguay und Rio Parana befindet sich das feuchte Mesopotamia. Am Muendungstrichter beider Fluesse am Rio de la Plata liegt auch die Hauptstadt Buenos Aires.

Suedlich und westlich der Hauptstadt erstrecken sich die Pampas, praktisch die Kornkammer des Landes mit gruenem Weideland und riesigen Weizenfeldern.

Zwischen den Pampas und den Anden finden sich noch die beiden mittelgebirgsaehnlichen Bergketten der Sierras Pampeanas.

Ganz im Sueden liegt dann das sturmumtoste und rauhe Patagonien. Hier beherrschen weite Ebenen das Bild, dazu wilde Felsberge mit starker Vergletscherung. Das argentinische Patagonien macht etwa ein Viertel der Landesflaeche aus, ist mit ca. 3 Einwohnern/Quadratkilometer aber sehr duenn besiedelt.

Argentinien ist zweifelsohne das europaeischste Land Latainamerikas, ungefaehr 90% seiner Einwohner sind europaeischer Abstammung. Davon stammen ca. 36% von Italienern und 29% von Spaniern ab, immerhin 3-4% von Deutschen. Der Mestizenanteil ist fuer suedamerikanische Verhaeltnisse extrem gering und duerfte um die 10% betragen. Von den etwa 30 Ethnien die es vor dem Eintreffen der Spanier gegeben hat, sind nahezu alle Spuren verschwunden, der verbliebene Indianeranteil wird zwischen 1und 1,5 Millionen geschaetzt. Die groessten verbliebenen Gruppen sind Mapuche, Kollas, Wichi und Toba.

Landschaftlich gehoert Argentinien sicherlich zu den vielseitigsten und interessantesten Laendern der Erde. Der trockene Norden mit seinen hohen Vulkanbergen, die langen Kuestenstreifen, die einzigartigen felsformationen Patagoniens, die alpin gepraegten Hochanden mit dem hoechsten Berg des amerikanischen Doppelkontinentes dem 6958m hohen Aconcagua oder die argentische Schweiz um den Nobelort Bariloche suchen weltweit ihresgleichen. In der Seenregion, dem noerdlichen Patagonien gibt es neben Bariloche noch zahlreiche weitere Skigebiete wie El Bolson. Im Sommer findet man hier herrliche alpin gepraegte Wandergebiete. Beides ruehrt daher, das in Argentinien ausgepraegte Jahreszeiten vorherrschen mit Fruehling, Sommer, Herbst und Winter. Genauso wie in Europa, nur jahreszeitlich umgekehrt. Weiter suedlich ueberwiegt dann der Winter. Nahe den bekannten Touristenorten Calafate und Chalten  befinden sich die groessten Inlandseisflaechen der Welt, der beruehmte Perito Moreno Gletscher und natuerlich die spitzen Felsnadeln um Cerro Fitz Roy und Cerro Torre.










Argentina is the second biggest country in south America and the 8th biggest in the world. Just 14 inhabitants for Quadra kilometer are not a so much so this giant country has just about 39,4 inhabitants. That’s third in south America behind brazil and Colombia.

The capital and most important economic center of Argentina is Buenos Aires, nearly the third part of all argentines live here, 11 to 15 Millions, nobody knows this exactly.

There are a few other important cities, like Cordoba, the second biggest city of the country with around 3,2 Millions. Also important are Salta and Jujuy in the north, Rosario, La Rioja, Bahia Blanca at the coast and Mendoza with  its permanent spring climate. In the southern part we have Bariloche, Neuquen and the most southern city of the world, Ushuaia.

The neighbor countries of Argentina are Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Chile, and of course the Atlantic Ozean. The longest border is with Chile, about 5300 km covered nearly completely by the Andean chain.

Argentina has a lot of diversity within the country, the dry north with a few of the worlds highest volcanoes like Pissis or Ojos de Salado. Also the long coastal area, the pampa with its wet fields or the strange Patagonian Andes are unique and fantastic. Argentina has the highest mountain of whole America, 6958m high Aconcagua and most difficult, Cerro Fitz Roy in Patagonia. There are a lot of alpine regions like in the lake district around Bariloche. Here you find skiing areas like in Europe. Argentina has all 4 seasons, like we know it from Europe, but the seasons are reverse. In the summer time the lake district is an excellent hiking area. Further south we find more winter, the Patagonian mountains are cold and heavily ice covered. The greatest in country ice field you can find near by the tourist centers Calafate and Chalten, the Perito Moreno glacier. Here we also can see the rock needles of Cerro Torre and Cerro Fitz Roy.

The central north is dominated by the Gran Chaco, hot and dry land without lots of people. In the east of this we can find the hills of the Provinz Misiones, their southern part includes the famous waterfalls of Iguazu in the frontier with Brazil and  Paraguay.

More southern, between the two rivers Rio Uruguay and Rio Paraña is located the wet Mesopotamia. This includes near by the coast the capital Buenos Aires.

Western and southern of the capital we find the pampas, here they grow wheat and have lots of green landscape for rising cattle. Between Pampas and Andes there are the small Cordilleras de Sierras Pampeanas.

Argentina is the most European country in south America, about 90% are from European ancestors. From they 36% have Italian ancestors, 26% from Spain and about 3-4% from Germany. The number of mestizen is for south American relations really low, perhaps about 10%. From the 30 Ethnics which lived in the country before the Spaniards came  you can see nearly nothing. Just about 1 to 1,5 Million Indians still live in the country. The biggest groups of them are Mapuche, Kollar, Wichi and Toba.




The Andes

At least above the sea level the Andean mountain chain is the longest in the world. They stretch from Venezuela through Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, to the southern parts of Chile and Argentina. For large part the Andean main chains run of two parallel chains with very different landscape forms through almost the whole of South America. At least 7,500 km long rises this still very young folds mountains near the Pacific Ocean.

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